The crushing size of cone crusher is more finer than the jaw crusher and the gyratory crusher. It is mainly used for crushing and fining the ore of various hardness. The cone crusher can be divided into 3 types according to the needs of the crushing operation (Figure 1). Standard type: mainly used in the medium of ore; intermediate type: mainly used in the middle and fine pieces of ore; short head type: used mainly for ore fine-grained. The basic structure of the three are the same in addition to the different shape of the crushing cavity in order to meet the requirements of different feeding and discharging size. The specifications of the cone crusher are expressed by the diameter D of the bottom of thecrushing cone, for example, the 1750 type cone crusher, that is, D = 1750mm.
（a）standard type （b）intermediate type （c）short head type
Figure 1 crushing cavity of cone crusher
2. Working principle and structure characteristics of cone crusher
Figure 2 is the structure of a 1750 type spring cone crusher, a typical equipment for medium or fine crushing hard ore.
Figure 2 1750 Spring cone crusher
1. motor; 2 coupling; 3 drive shaft; 4 small bevel gear; 5 big conical gear; 6 spring; 7 frame; 8 support ring; 9 push hydraulic cylinder; 10 adjustment ring; 11 dust cover; 12 liner; 13 feed plate; 14 feed box; 15 spindle; 16 liner; 17 crushing cone; 18 locking nut; 19 piston;20 spherical bearing; 21 spherical bearing seat; 22 spherical collar 23 annular groove; 24 rib plate; 25 center sleeve; 26 bushing; 27 thrust bearing; 28 frame lower disc; 29 oil inlet; 30 conical bushing; 31 eccentric sleeve; 32 row of oil holes.
1) operating mechanism
The operating mechanism consists of a crushing cone 17 with a manganese steel liner and a fixed cone (that is, the adjusting ring 10 in the Figure 2). The zinc alloy is poured between the liner and the cone to ensure its close bonding. The crushing cone 17 pressure is installed on the spindle 15, the lower surface is spherical shape and supported by the spherical bearing. The lower end of the spindle is inserted in the conical hole of the eccentric axle sleeve, and the bushes made of bronze or MC6 nylon are installed in the conical hole of the eccentric shaft sleeve. When the motor drives the eccentric bushing to rotate through the cone gear 4 and 5, the main shaft and the crushing cone supported by the spherical bearing are rotated and swinging so as to achieve the purpose of crushing the ore.
The adjustment device of cone crusher is actually a part of the fixed cone. It consists of adjusting ring, supporting ring 8, locking nut 18, pushing hydraulic cylinder 9, locking hydraulic cylinder and piston 19. The supporting ring 8 is installed on the top of the frame 7, and the tightening spring 6 around the crusher is attached to the frame. There are serrated threads at the contact surface of the supporting ring 8 and the adjusting ring. The support ring 8 is equipped with two pairs of claw and a pair of propelling hydraulic cylinders. The locking hydraulic cylinder and the piston are mounted on the upper part of the support ring 8. The lock nut is also made into a sawtooth thread at the contact surface of the adjusting ring。When the crusher works normally, the locking cylinder is filled with pressure oil, so that the screw thread of the locking nut, the supporting ring and the adjusting ring contact surface can be tightly attached to the inclined surface, so as to achieve the purpose of locking. When need to adjust the discharging opening, the locking hydraulic cylinder unloading, the serrated thread to relax, then control hydraulic system, start driving the hydraulic cylinder, drives the adjusting ring to rotate, the drive sawtooth thread, the fixed cone is increased or decreased, so as to achieve the purpose of adjusting the discharge opening.
Dustproof device is shown in Figure 3, the tank 1 (annular groove 23 in Figure 2), drainage groove 2, ring 3, ring 4 (hp-l collar22 in Figure 2) and the retaining ring 5. The water inlet pipe into the water tank 1, and then to overflow to the drain tank 2, discharged through the drain pipe. Due to the blocking effect of the annular ring 4, the dust can not enter into the human machine, and it is taken away from the human water tank 1 by the circulating water, so as to protect the transmission parts of the machine.
Figure 3 Water seal dustproof device
The spring cone crusher is used as an insurance device with a spring installed around the frame. When the crusher is overloaded, the supporting ring and the adjusting ring is supported on a spring above was forced to raise the compression spring, the discharge port to increase the size of the non crushing matter which can be discharged . Under the action of spring force, the supporting ring and the adjusting ring are reset automatically, and the crusher can crush the material again.Obviously, the spring is not only an insurance device but also a crushing force when it crush, so the degree of tension has an important influence on the normal operation of the crusher. Therefore, there should be an appropriate compression allowance when tightening the spring.
Figure 4 Spring cone crusher overall
3.Specification of cone crusher
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Spring cone crusher consists of frame, drive shaft, eccentric sleeve, bowl bearing, crushing cone, support sleeve, adjusting sleeve, feed part, spring, elastic coupling, lubrication, electric equipment etc. During the cone crusher is working, the motor drives the eccentric sleeve to rotate with elastic coupling, the drive shaft and a pair of bevel gears, the crushing cone axis line is rotating and swinging by the eccentric sleeve. It makes the crushing mantle and concave near and far away, ores are crushed with being extruded and impacted in the crushing cavity.