The belt conveyor is widely used in the beneficiation plant because of its simple structure, large amount of transportation and convenient maintenance. The working principle of the belt conveyor is that the flexible conveyor belt is used as the continuous conveying equipment for the material bearing parts and the traction parts. According to the principle of friction transmission, the conveyor belt drives the conveyor belt to transport and transport the materials. The structure of the belt conveyor is shown in Figure 1.
Figure1.structure of belt conveyor
The main components of belt conveyor include driving device (motor, reducer, hydraulic coupler or coupling, brake, backstop), and electric drum, transmission pulley, bend pulley , supporting roller, conveyor belt, tensioning device, unloading device, cleaning.
device, feeding device (chute and guide chute), supporting component, safety protection device and so on.
The driving device is the power part of the conveyor, which is composed of motor, hydraulic coupler (coupling), reducer, brake, reverse stop and so on. Its basic composition and layout are shown in Figure 2. The assembly form can be determined according to the site position. The selection of the driving device is related to the working conditions of the belt conveyor, the working conditions, the driving power, the transmission distance and many other factors.
Figure2. Driving device basic composition
（a）（b）（c）single drum driving；
（d（e）（f）（g）two drums driving；
（h)（i）（j）（k）three drums driving
1.motor；2. Brake；3.reducer；4.coupling；5.driving pulley；6.belt
When the driving power is large, the driving units, such as motor, hydraulic coupler and reducer, are generally used. The function of the hydraulic coupler is to improve the starting performance of the conveyor, reduce the starting coefficient of the motor and the pulling force of the conveyor belt during the start-up process, which is very effective for prolonging the service life of the conveyor belt. The structure of the hydraulic coupler is shown in Figure 3.
Figure3. The structure of the hydraulic coupler
The electric drum is a driving device that loads the motor and reducer into the head drum or only puts the reducer into the drum body. The former is called the built-in electric drum. There is a common immersed type electric drum (cooling oil in direct contact with the motor stator and rotor) and oil cooled electric drum (cooling oil does not directly contact with the stator and rotor) , there are other air-cooled roller and self cooled electric drum which is suitable for small power single drive belt conveyor. The latter is called the external mounted electric drum, which has the dual advantages of the traditional open transmission and the inner mounted electric drum, and the power can reach 160kW. At present, the external mounted electric drum has been widely replaced by the inner mounted electric drum.
The driving drum is the power of the driving device, which passes through friction to the parts of the conveyer belt. In general, the driving drum has two forms of steel plate welding structure and cast welding structure. There are two forms of light surface and glue surface on the surface of the drum. The effect of the rubber surface is to increase the friction between the drive roller and the conveyor belt.
The roller is a device used to support the conveyor belt and its material, and to ensure the stable operation of the conveyer belt. It has the form of groove, flat shape, heart adjustment, forward, buffer, transition and so on.
The conveyer belt is the traction component and the bearing component of the belt conveyor, which is used for conveying material and transmitting power. The structure of conveyor belt is divided into fabric core conveyor belt and steel cord conveyor belt, which is made up of upper covering, core layer and lower cover. The function of upper and lower covering glue is to protect the core layer from damage and not affected by surrounding working environment. The core materials are cotton canvas, nylon canvas, polyester canvas and wire rope. The fabric core conveyer belt can select the number of layers according to the size of the tension.
The role of tensioning device is to make the conveyor belt have enough tension to ensure that the conveyor belt does not slip between the transmission roller and the sag of the conveyor belt between the supporting rollers, so as to make the conveyor belt run normally. The tensioning device usually has several forms, such as screw tensioning device, heavy hammer tension device, car tensioning device, fixed winch tensioning device and so on.
The unloading device is a device used to unload the material at any point in the middle of the conveyor. There are two types of common use: plow type discharger and electric discharge trolley. The structure of the electric unloading trolley is shown in Figure 4. The unloading trolley is installed on the rail of the conveyor frame, and through the motor and the reducer, the trolley is free to move on the rail surface through the chain. The two change drum and the unloading chute are installed on the car. When unloading is needed, the heavy section of the conveyer belt passes around a roller on the top of the car, unloading the material into the chute. For head discharging, the fork on the chute gate closed, the material can be made through the middle chute back to the conveyor belt of heavy section. This electric unloading car is easy to use and reliable in operation.
Figure4. electric unloading car
1.support roller；2.walking device；3.drum；4.car frame；5.unloading chute
The sweeper is to remove residual material bonded on the conveyor belt, to avoid residual material is brought to the conveyor belt caused by the drum to return branch, and the return roller on the roller, roller scale and lead to premature damage, wear, conveyor belt deviation, affecting the normal operation of the conveyor belt. The structure of a common sweeper is shown in Figure 5.
Figure5.structure of sweeper
（a）spring sweeper;（b）（c）Alloy rubber sweeper;（d）Hard alloy scraper sweeper;（e）nonloaded sweeper
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